Botanical Name: Carum carvi
Indian Name: Siya jeera
Origin, Distribution and Composition of Caraway Seed
The caraway plant is a biennial herb usually with a fleshy root and slender, branched stems. It has feather-like leaves divided into very narrow segments and small white flowers. The fruit, when ripe, splits into narrow, elongated carpels, which are curved, pointed at the ends and have four longitudinal ridges on the surface. The dried fruits or seeds, brown in color, are hard and sharp to touch. They have a pleasant odor, aromatic flavor, somewhat sharp taste and leave a somewhat warm feeling in the mouth.
Caraway's qualities were- recognized by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. The herb was widely used in the Middle Ages. It has been used for centuries in breads and cakes, and
with baked fruit, especially roasted apples. Because caraway was said to prevent lovers from straying, it was once an essential ingredient in love potions. The seeds of caraway were prescribed for bringing bloom to the cheeks of pale-faced Young maidens.
The caraway seed is native to north and central Europe and West Asia . In India , it grows wild in the north Himalayan region. The herb is cultivated as a winter crop on the plains and summer one in Kashmir , Kumaon, Garhwal and Chamba at altitudes of 2,740 to 3,660 meters.
An analysis of caraway seeds shows it to contain appreciable moisture, protein, fat, substantial amount of carbohydrates besides ash, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, iron, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. It also contains vitamins C and A. Its calorific value is 465 per 100 gram.
A valuable essential oil, containing substantial amounts of carvone, is obtained from caraway seeds. This oil is colorless or pale yellow with a strong odor and flavor of the fruit. The volatile oil contains a mixture of ketone, carvone, a terpene and traces of carvacrol.
Healing Power and Curative Properties of Caraway Seeds
The caraway seeds, leaves and roots are considered useful in activating the glands, besides increasing the action of the kidneys. It is characterized as an excellent 'house cleaner' for the body. Caraway oil is used in medicine to relieve flatulence. It is also used to correct the nauseating and griping effects of some medicines.
Caraway seeds are useful in strengthening the functions of stomach. They relieve flatulence and are useful in flatulent colic, countering any possible adverse effects of medicines. However, the volatile oil of the seeds is employed more often than the seeds. For flatulence, a cup of tea made from caraway seeds taken thrice a day,. after meals, will .give relief. This tea is prepared by adding a teaspoon of caraway seeds in 1.5 to 2 liters of boiling water and allowing it to simmer on a slow fire for 15 minutes. It is then strained and sipped hot or warm. .
Carvone, isolated from caraway oil, is used as anthelmintic, especially in removing hookworms from the intestines.
A dilute solution, containing small amounts of the oil of the caraway and alcohol mixed in 75 parts of castor oil is considered beneficial in the treatment of scabies. The solution should be taken orally.
Caraway seed oil is used orally in overcoming bad breath or insipid taste.
Other Uses of Caraway Seeds
Caraway is widely used for flavoring breads, biscuits, cakes and cheese. It is also used as an ingredient in sausages and as a seasoning and pickling spices. Caraway oil is useful chiefly for flavoring purposes and in medicine as a carminative to relieve flatulence.
Medicinal Uses of Caraway Seed
Aromatic, stimulant and caraminative, it was widely used as a cordial to ease dyspepsia and hysteria. The oil is applied to treat flatulence and stomach disorders. Distilled caraway water is used to ease flatulent colic in infants and is an excellent children's medicine. The bruised fruits were used to remove pain from bad earache and was also used as a poultice to take away bruises. Caraway is widely used as a flavouring for seed and seed-cakes.